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Esophageal Foreign Body

Esophageal Foreign Body

 

Esophageal Foreign Body
Image Number: 136-130
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Title: Esophageal Foreign Body
Customization: Available
Image Description:  This xray enhancement shows an earring at the cricopharyngeus, the entrance to the esophagus

© Jackie Heda
Portfolio
Artist/Company Bio:
Jackie Heda is a board certified member of the Association of Medical Illustrators, has been creating art for science and the healthcare industry for 26 years, and has had her own successful business for the past 24 years.
She is actively involved in the AMI, served on the Board of Governors and currently Co-Chair of the Medical Illustration Source Book Editorial Committee. Jackie earned a Bachelor of Science in biology at Emory University and a Bachelor of Science in Art as Applied to Medicine from the University of Toronto. She has received numerous awards for editorial and advertising art.
From her home-based studio in Charlotte, NC, Jackie provides her services to major medical journals, textbook publishers, pharmaceutical companies, and consumer publications. Her illustrations appear in the publication, Harvard Medical School Family Health Guide (Simon & Schuster, 1999). Jackie art directed and illustrated the 24 page full color section in this book, which was featured on NBC's Today show and was listed as one of the top ten medical books for 1999.

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Esophageal Foreign Body


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This xray enhancement shows an earring at the cricopharyngeus, the entrance to the esophagus


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Shows aspired foreign body being removed from a child's lungs.


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Cells Antibody Antigen Macrophage Complex. Antibodies, or Y-shaped immunoglobulins, are proteins found in the blood where they help to fight against foreign substances called antigens. Antigens, which are usually proteins or polysaccharides, stimulate the immune system to produce antibodies. The antibodies inactivate the antigen and help to remove it from the body. While antigens can be the source of infections from pathogenic bacteria and viruses, organic molecules detrimental to the body from internal or environmental sources also act as antigens. Genetic engineering and the use of various mutational mechanisms allow the construction of a vast array of antibodies (each with a unique genetic sequence). Specific genes for antibodies direct the construction of antigen specific regions of the antibody molecule. Such antigen-specific regions are located at the extremes of the Y- shaped immunglobulin-molecule. Once the immune system has created an antibody for an antigen whose attack it has survived, it continues to produce antibodies for subsequent attacks from that antigen. This long-term memory of the immune system provides the basis for the practice of vaccination against disease. The immune system, with its production of antibodies, has the ability to recognize, remember, and destroy well over a million different antigens. There are several types of simple proteins known as globulins in the blood: alpha, beta, and gamma. Antibodies are gamma globulins produced by B lymphocytes when antigens enter the body. The gamma globulins are referred to as immunoglobulins. In medical literature they appear in the abbreviated form as Ig. Each antigen stimulates the production of a specific antibody (Ig). Antibodies are all in a Y-shape with differences in the upper branch of the Y. These structural differences of amino acids in each of the antibodies enable the individual antibody to recognize an antigen. An antigen has on its surface a combining site that the antibody recognizes from the combining sites on the arms of its Y-shaped structure. In response to the antigen that has called it forth, the antibody wraps its two combining sites like a "lock" around the "key" of the antigen combining sites to destroy it. An antibody's mode of action varies with different types of antigens. With its two-armed Y-shaped structure, the antibody can attack two antigens at the same time with each arm. If the antigen is a toxin produced by pathogenic bacteria that cause an infection like diphtheria or tetanus, the binding process of the antibody will nullify the antigen's toxin. When an antibody surrounds a virus, such as one that causes influenza, it prevents it from entering other body cells. Another mode of action by the antibodies is to call forth the assistance of a group of immune agents that operate in what is known as the plasma complement system. First, the antibodies will coat infectious bacteria and then white blood cells will complete the job by engulfing the bacteria, destroying them, and then removing them from the body.


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